Sunday, 9 December 2012

Who Invented?????

Who Invented Popcorn
Popcorn is a type of corn that puffs up when heated. According to various theories, exact inventor of popcorn is still not known but evidence of popcorn found in Peru takes up back to as early as 4700 BC. In one other discovery evidence of popcorn from 3600 BCE was found in New Mexico too.Corn pollen was found two hundred feet below where the site of Mexico City sits today. The oldest ear of popcorn was seen in a bat cave in New Mexico. According to reports, this ear was found to be around four thousand years old.

Native American were also credited for the invention of popcorns and americans have literally been snacking on popcorn for centuries. A Europeon who came to America in the 16th and 17th centuries learned about popcorn from the Native Americans.

During WWII, popcorn became an extremely patriotic snack because sugar was rationed. popcorn remained a popular snack throughout the rest of the twentieth century in America.

Today we are enjoying natural, salted or buttered popcorn with various other flavors added. This makes popcorn included among the most versatile treats around.

Depending on how it is prepared and cooked, some consider it to be a health food while American Academy of Pediatrics recommends not serving to children under four, because of the risk of choking. The world's largest popcorn ball was unveiled in October 2006 in Lake Forest, Illinois. It weighed 3,415 pounds, measured 8 feet in diameter, and had a circumference of 24.6 feet

Who Invented Refrigerator
Although, the idea of preserving food using cool temperatures was very old yet the first known artificial refrigeration(invention of refrigerator) was demonstrated by William Cullen at the University of Glasgow in 1748. Before the invention of the refrigerator, people used to preserve their food by placing them near freshwater lakes or packed with snow, in winters they used ice or icehouses. Natural means are still used to cool foods today.

Refrigeration is the process of removing heat from an enclosed space, or from a substance, to lower its temperature. American inventor Oliver Evans invented the vapor-compression refrigeration machine design in 1805 however he never built any arefrigeration unit. In 1834, Jacob Perkins modified Oliver Evans' original design, building the world's first refrigerator and filing the first legal patent for refrigeration using vapor-compression. The word refrigerator was not existed at that time but in 1800, Thomas Moore first used this word. He designed cedar tub which was covered with rabbit fur and ice. While Moore called it a refrigerator, now it is known as icebox.
Steps of Invention   
  •     In 1895 and 1908 ,a French physics teacher "Marcel Audiffen"  designed home refrigerator. Based in his design, the first home refrigerator was made by General Electric in 1911. The fridge was composed of wood.
  •     Later in 1913, refrigerators for home and domestic use were modified by Fred W. Wolf of Fort Wayne, Indiana with models consisting of a unit that was mounted on top of an ice box.
  •     In 1914, engineer Nathaniel B. Wales of Detroit, Michigan, introduced an idea for a practical electric refrigeration unit, which later became the basis for the Kelvinator. 
  •     A self-contained refrigerator, with a compressor on the bottom of the cabinet was invented by Alfred Mellowes in 1916.
  •     In 1918, Kelvinator Company introduced the first refrigerator with any type of automatic control. By 1923, Kelvinator held 80 percent of the market for electric refrigerators.
  •     Home freezers as separate compartments (larger than necessary just for ice cubes), or as separate units, were introduced in the United States in 1940.
Who Invented Tooth Paste
The credit of toothpaste invention goes to ancient Egypt who are believed to use it between 3000 and 5000 BC. Although some sources also credit to China and India also. In Egyptian version of toothpaste egg shells and pumice and myrrh were mixed with water to make the paste. In Indian toothpaste, Ayurvedic was strongly used in which twigs were used for brushing which twig was naturally filled with a sweet nectar. In Chinese version, twigs and bones were mashed and mixed with water, salt, and flower petals to form a thick paste.

    The modern history of toothpaste began with the invention of the collapsible tube for storing toothpaste by Dr. Washington Sheffield of the USA in 1892. Starting from year 1900, hydrogen peroxide, baking soda and fluoride became part of the ingredients. Fluoride is used to protect teeth from decay. Some toothpaste might contain sodium monofluorophosphate and calcium phosphate also. The primary use of toothpaste is to prevent cavities, however in recent time they were designed to whiten teeth and also give fresh breath. The first proven medically safe toothpaste with fluoride was by Proctor and Gamble which came in market in 1955.
Who Invented Lipstick
The invention of lipstick takes us back to more than 5,000 years when ancient Mesopotamian women used some form of lipstick. It is believed that the material they applied on their lips and even around their eyes was made from crushed gemstones(semi-precious jewels). If we come forward to 3000 BC to Indus Valley Civilization, it is believed that women of this time painted their lips red. The material is still unknown.
       The Lipstick made by a purplish-red dye taken from seaweed, a bit of iodine and bromine mannite was used by ancient Egyptians women, but this material was not good for health and made women very ill. Cleopatra women, the most famous ancient Egyptian in history, made her lipstick from the red colour extracted from crushed carmine beetles and ants.

        In 16th century, lipstick became widely used and became very popular in England when Queen Elizabeth I first used it. During the reign of Queen Elizabeth I bright red lips and a stark white face became fashionable.
        By the end of the 19th century, Guerlain, a French cosmetic company, begin to manufacture lipstick. The first commercial lipstick had been invented in 1884, by perfumers in Paris, France. It was covered in silk paper and made from deer tallow, castor oil, and beeswax. Around 1920s, the black lipstick was back in fashion. The invention of the push up tube lipstick invented in 1930s. It was released in the United States and immediately became a hit. During the 1940s the rotating push up lipstick was invented. During the Second World War, metal lipstick tubes were replaced by plastic and paper tubes.
        Modern Lipsticks contains wax, natural oils, antioxidants and emollients. More than 50% of lipsticks made in the United States contain pig fat or castor oil, which gives them a shiny appearance. Pink lipsticks are made by mixing colourless titanium dioxide and red shades. There are organic and inorganic pigments.
Who Invented Pencil
Pencil was not invented in one step easy step, instead many inventors has their hands in making of a pencil which we are using today. In 1564, a huge graphite or "black carbon" mine was discovered in Borrowdale, Cumbria, England. In the same time, an attempt was made in which graphite rods were inserted into hand-carved wooden holders. The result was a poor quality pencil that easily broke.

         In 1795, the Nicholas Jacques Conte (a French officer in Napoleon's army) , invented and patented the first quality pencil and discovered that ground graphite, when mixed with the right kinds of clay, produced the best lead for pencils. By varying the ratio of graphite to clay, the hardness of the graphite can also vary. He turned graphite into powder and then mixed it with moist doughs of clay and pressed the thing to make thin sticks. He then cooked it in a kiln. Mr. Conte was born at Saint-Ceneri-pres-Sees now (Aunou-sur-Orne) in Normandy,France on 4 August 1755. Napoleon called him “a universal man with taste, understanding and genius capable of creating the arts of France in the middle of the Arabian Desert. He also invented the conté crayon named after him, a hard pastel stick used by artists.

        The name of pencil is derived from the Latin word "pencillus", which means little tail. In those times, pencillus was used to refer to fine, pointed brushes before the man who invented the pencil came up with the idea. Modern pencils come in over 350 flavors, each designed for a specific use, and may be purchased in over 72 colors. 
Who Invented Coffee
t is believed that Coffee was invented in an Ethiopian province called Kaffa but there is controversy about where it originated. In Ethiopia, shepherds were the first person to observe the influence of the caffeine in coffee beans when their goats consumed appeared to "dance" and have an increased level of energy after eating some wild coffee berries in the pasture. Coffee first became trendy in Arabia during the 13th century. Coffee cultivation first took place in southern Arabia in 13th century. The earliest credible evidence of coffee drinking appears in the middle of the 15th century in the Sufi shrines of Yemen.
        Coffee trees were grown in India sometime after 1600, and some around 1650 coffee was imported in to England and coffee houses opened in London and Oxford. Coffee received a major boost in popularity during the rise of Islam as they removed alcohol but adopted coffee as an acceptable drink. From the Muslim world, coffee spread to Italy. It was introduced in France in 1657, and in Austria and Poland following the 1683 Battle of Vienna, when coffee was captured from supplies of the defeated Turks.

Coffee is a brewed beverage with a strong flavor prepared from the roasted seeds of the coffee plant. The first reference to "coffee" in the English language is in the form chaoua in 1598. The beans are found in coffee cherries, which grow on trees cultivated in over 70 countries, primarily in equatorial Latin America, Southeast Asia, South Asia and Africa.It is rich in caffeine, an ingredient known for its invigorating effects. The first European coffee house opened in Italy in the year 1645. The Dutch were the first to import coffee and coffee beans on a large scale.

Some Coffee Facts :

  • In 2010 Brazil was the world leader in production of green coffee, followed by Vietnam, Indonesia and Colombia.
  • Originally, coffee farming was done in the shade of trees that provided a habitat for many animals and insects.
  • It takes about 140 liters of water to grow the coffee beans needed to produce one cup of coffee.
  • The best (but least used) method of drying coffee is using drying tables.
  • Instant coffee was originally invented in 1907.
  • Coffee ingestion on average is about a third of that of tap water in North America and Europe.
  • Behind petroleum, coffee is the second most traded product in the world.
Who Invented Computer Key-Board
The credit of computer keyboard invention goes to Christopher Latham Sholes of USA. In real terms, he invented the first practical typewriter and the QWERTY keyboard still in use today. Computer QWERTY keyword is alike of it. Mr. Sholes was also a newspaper publisher in Milwaukee and Wisconsin politician.
        Although Henry Mill( an English inventor)  patented the first typewriter in 1714 but it was Mr. Sholes whose invented QWERTY keyword was the first one to be commercially successful. Before  the invention of keyboard, he tried to invent a typesetting machine, but he did not got any success in that. In 1867-68, he read an article about the Plerotype typewriter invented by John Pratt and he thought that he should give it a try too. He with his fellow inventors (Soule and Glidden) produced a a piano-like machine with white and black keys. It did not contain keys for the numerals 0 or 1 because the letters O and I were deemed sufficient. They patented it in July 1868.

         Some More work now need to do but Soule and Glidden gave up, relinquishing the rest of the patent to Sholes. Realizing that stenographers would be among the first and most important users of the machine, and therefore best in a position to judge its suitability, he sent experimental versions to a few stenographers. The one problem that was comping in his typewriter was of key jamming. James Densmore had suggested splitting up commonly used letter combinations in order to solve a jamming problem so Sholes split up the most commonly used letters in the design. After much trial and error, he came up with the QWERTY design.
                       In computing, the keyboard remained the primary, most integrated computer peripheral well into the era of personal computing until the introduction of the mouse as a consumer device in 1984. However, keyboards remain central to human-computer interaction to the present, even as mobile personal computing devices such as smartphones and tablets adapt the keyboard as an optional virtual, touchscreen-based means of data entry. 
Who Invented Pizza
Who invented the pizza is still now known but it was invented in ancient Greece by Neapolitan cuisine before 1000 A.D.. They Putted stuff on flat bread called plakous as a meal which was flavored with toppings like herbs, onion, and garlic. They used to call it pita or pie. Definitions of Pizza are many and varied. Food historians agreed that pizza like dishes were eaten by many people in the Mediterranean including the Greeks and Egyptians. Foods similar to pizza have been prepared and can be found throughout ancient history.

        The term that gave it a name Pizza was the use of tomato as a topping. By the late 18th century, it was common for the poor of the area around Naples to add tomato to their yeast-based flat bread, and so the pizza was born. The dish gained in popularity, and soon pizza became a tourist attraction as visitors to Naples ventured into the poorer areas of the city to try the local specialty.

If we talked to modern time, the American Pizza was invented in 1950's. However, modern pizza has been attributed to baker Raffaello Esposito of Naples.  In 1889, Esposito who owned a restaurant called Pizzeria di Pietro baked what he called "pizza" especially for the visit of the Italian King Umberto1 and Queen Margherita. The first pizzeria in North America was openned in 1905 by Gennaro Lombardi at 53 1/3 Spring street in New York City. The first "Pizza Hut" a chain of Pizza restaurants appeared in the United States during 1930's....

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